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【评论】身体的发现---陈连富雕塑漫谈

2013-12-23 13:43:15 来源:艺术家提供作者:孙振华
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  可能很多男性观众都会暗暗地羡慕陈连富,因为他雕塑了那么多美丽的身体。

  陈连富虽然也做过许多金属焊接作品,也做过一些头像之类,但是最有代表性,也是最有成就的,应该是那些女人体。

  一个男人喜欢女性的身体,特别是性感的,有魅力的身体,是最自然不过的事情了。在这一点上,它不是什么“当下”不“当下”的问题,而是一个永恒的问题。

《山之情》 178x52x49cm 2009

  当下的男人关注女性的身体;过去的男人难道就不关注吗?何况,当下的女性同样也在关注自身的身体问题。只是,身体这件事情一直到现在,常常都是不能拿到桌面上来说的。

  女性的身体曾经是一种中国的禁忌。尽管古往今来,没有人在内心里成心要跟女性的身体过不去,——除非有病——但是,在光冕堂皇的言说中,在艺术的表现中,作为肉体的,感性的女人体,常常是被遮蔽的。

  其实何止是中国呢!

  在人类的历史上,身体的历史是一部意味深长的大书。身体作为生命的本体和物质承载,作为工具和机器,作为语言和符号,它凝聚了太多的社会和历史内容。

  在艺术的表现上,身体是遮蔽还是敞开?是鄙视还是膜拜?都是我们解读人类文化的一种方式。也就是说,不同的时代的身体观念和态度,不同时代的身体艺术和表现方式已经成为人们窥视人类文化的一个特殊角度,这就是——发现身体。

  所以,在肉体上,在生理学意义上,喜欢女人的身体并不是一个“当下”的问题;但发现身体的重要性,将身体问题提升为一个文化问题,则毫无疑问地是一个当下的问题。

  在这个意义上,陈连富将女性身体的表现作为他一贯的研究课题就不再是一个男人喜欢女人那么简单问题;也不再是从两性的意义上,对身体本身的关注,而是将身体问题提升为一个文化人类学的研究课题。

  关注和表现中国女人的身体,也就是发现中国,研究中国的一种特殊的文化方式。只有把陈连富的工作放在历史中,放在中国女性身体艺术的发展链条中,才可以充分地发现他的作品的意义。

  前面说,女性身体曾经是中国的禁忌,这句话并不全对。也就是说,从雕塑的历史上看,女性的身体有自然袒露,被顶礼膜拜的历史;也有天真无邪,无所顾忌的历史。这些在中国的原始文化中,都有表露。

  随着文明的发展,身体日益被遮盖以后,佛教艺术的传入,给了女性身体一次解放的机会。在魏晋南北朝时代,在唐代,那些半裸菩萨的妖冶身姿就是明证。

  宋以后,女性身体又开始被严严实实地遮蔽起来。再后来身体的女性特征越来越模糊,越来越远离身体的真实形态,仅仅成为一种抽象的指代。

  这种情形随着古典中国向现代性中国发生转变而产生了变化。

  从二十世纪开始,一种西方式的雕塑传入中国,伴随这个过程的,是一种与西方传统密切相关的“人体”塑造的题材和语言方式。

  在二十世纪前期的人体教学中,我们从当时的女人体雕塑中,能感到明显的西方女人体和东方女人体相混合特点。也就是说,由于刚开始引进,古老而封闭的中国缺乏对人体美的研究,早期的人体作品还有概念化的问题,因为它们还没有来得及真正展开对中国女性人体的研究。

  仅仅只是开了一个头,很快就被搁置了。战争,革命,救亡,压倒了对女人体的关注。尔后,一种新女性身体语言开始取代中西合璧式的女人体。这就是红色经典的身体模式。

  1949年以后,女人体只是作为教学和基础训练而存在,将女人体直接作为作品来进行表现是不被提倡的,甚至是禁止的。

  红色的身体模式一般都是着衣的,它的特点是神圣性、去肉身化;她要去掉的是任何与性感和妩媚相关的身体魅力,而保留一种向上的,激昂的,中性化的身体姿态。这种模式在文化大革命中发展到了高峰。

  1979年以后,随着人的思想的解放,人的身体也逐步获得解放。女人体重新回到了艺术的殿堂。到了这个时候,似乎是到了应该好好研究一下人体的时候了。

  遗憾的是,我们的脚步太快。新的艺术观念和思潮象风一样的掠过,艺术家为了证明自己没有落后,也耽心被淘汰,只好匆匆地追赶一趟趟时尚的列车。

  身体又一次被忽略了。不过,这一次不是因为禁忌,而可能是因为太没有禁忌。

  在陈连富稳住精神,依然以具象的方式,架上雕塑的方式,坚持研究女人体的时候;一种观念的,以身体作为材料的先锋艺术又出现了。这是一种大胆,带有暴力美学特征的艺术方式。

  陈连富的身体研究被夹在了中间,似乎显得不够前卫。

  如何看待陈连富?

  陈连富作品的意义需要正视。他所研究的这个环节恰好是被历史一次次遗弃,而从艺术史,文化史的角度看,又不应该被遗漏的环节。

  陈连富作品的意义在于对身体的发现,他让人们发现了中国的身体。

  他的雕塑展现的是一种中国的人体美。这个工作过去我们一直没有做到位,做到家。而陈连富则一直坚持在做。在艺术史上,我们看到了无数优美的西方女人体;那么,站在中国体质人类学的角度看,有那些中国女人的身体可堪与之比肩呢?

  往深处说,这是一个“未完成的现代性”。在人体的问题上,中国还需要启蒙,还需要

  解放,还需要坦然面对身体的从容心态,还需要把身体真正作为审美对象的气度和宽容。人的身体既不淫秽下流,也不肮脏龌龊。对待人的身体的态度,在某种意义上,是一个社会进步和开放程度的标尺,也是一个社会现代性的发展尺度。在这个问题上,中国还有很长的路要走。

  陈连富没有简单地重复老一辈人的工作,他的女人体具有明显的当代趣味和眼光。

  纵观中国仅有的一些女人体雕塑,过去学院式的创作比较多地停留在结构、比例、体量的层面。在那里,人们可以看到了很多“正确的”的女人体,但是很少看到鲜活的,生动的,性感的女人体。这当然是由雕塑家的身体观念所决定的。

  陈连富的塑造女人体的时候,具有一种直率、坦荡的特点。它的人体细腻,性感,富于肉体的诱惑性和触摸感。他丝毫不掩饰对塑造对象的那种欣赏和赞美的态度。他的女人体,抛弃了那些空洞的,伪善的关于女性美的教条,直逼视觉的真实。显然,他更愿意将女人还原为女人,将身体还原为身体,将性感还原为性感。

  发现身体,发现感性,发现东方式的温润和委婉,这一切都渗透了雕塑家个人的情感态度。当他带着自己的身体观观察对象的时候,他不是概念地塑造人体,而是让作品还原为一种真实:既是视觉的真实,又是他面对中国女性,在中国女性的身体表现中捕捉东方神韵时的那种感觉上的真实。这种身体的发现使他的人体作品成为当代中国雕塑中为数不多的成功个案。

(孙振华:深圳雕塑院院长 博士)

  Discovering the body---Casual Discussion of Lao Da's Sculpture works

  Sun Zhenhua

  Many male audiences would envy Lao Da,as he has sculpted a lot of beautiful female bodies.

  Although Lao Da has also made lots of other sculptures like metal welding,or some experimental art,but the most emblematic work,which is also the most successful work should be those female bodies sculpture.

  It's quite a normal thing that man is fond of female's body,especially a body that is sexy and attractive.At this point ,it's not an issue of debating whether it is ablout the past or the present,but an issue of eternity.

  At present,men pay lots of attention to female's body;But wasn't this the case in the past?And women themselves do care about their bodies as well.The thing is that the issue of female's body has always been a sensitive issue and people deem it inappropriate to talk about this subject.

  The female body was once a type of taboo in ancient China.Although no one has intentionally found female's body repulsive,unless he is crazy,however,in sugar coated speech and art performance,the sensual and sexy woman body is usually covered.

  As a matter of fact,it is not merely so in China!

  In human's history,the history of human body has been a great book with significant connotation.This book has taken life as the main body and its material load,it has taken life as its instrument and machine,as language and sign,it contains enormous social and historical content.

  In terms of art performance,the body shall be the camouflage or wide open?Shall it be contemplative or devoted?All of these constitute an approach through which we interpret and understand the human culture.In other words,the differentways of treating and looking at body and body art perfomance in the different time periods,became a specical way to regard the human culture--discovering the body.

  Hence,physiologically and biologically,being fond of woman's body is not a "present" issue;But discovering and realizing the importance of the body,and prompting body issue to a cultural issue,then there is no doubt about it is a present issue.

  In this regard,the fact that Lao Da consistently makes the female body as a research topic is no longer a simple question such as a man likes a woman;And it isn't about men and women either,but a focus on the body per se and promoting the issue of body to a research topic of cultural anthropology.

  paying attention to and illustrating Chinese female's body,in other words it could be a special way to study Chinese culture.Only when applying Lao Da's works to the history and to the development of the art of Chinese female body,one could fully realize and understand the significance of his works.

  We have just mentioned that,the female body was taboo in the Chinese history,which was not necessarily right. In other words,to look at the history of sculpture,some female bodies have naturally been revealed and worshiped;It also has entailed innocent and naive elements in the history.All of these have been expressed in the primitive Chinese culture.

  With the development of the civilization,the female body was starting to be covered up day by day,and the Buddhism art had emerged in China,giving an opportunity to the emancipation of the female body.Inthe Wei,Jin and Tang Dynasty,those half nakes Bodhisattva's beautiful and bewitching bodies are conspicuously the evidence.

  Afer the Song Dynasty,the female bodies were fully covered up.Afterwards,the characteristics of female body characters were becoming more and more vague,more distant from the real body shape,merely became a kind of abstract symbol.

  This situation has transformed along with the development and the modernization of China.

  Starting from the 20th century,western sculpture concept had been introduced to China,and through this process,a combination of western and Chinese sculpture with a focus on "human body" had been formed.

  In the early 20th century,through Chinese art school,we could obviously feel the combination of occidental woman's body and the oriental woman's body.In other words,because we had jues started to introduce the western concept,ancient and closed China lacked research on physical beauty,conceptualism always appeared in the early human figure art works.Because they had not truly engaged in the research of Chinese female body.

  That was merely a start,and was put aside very quickly.The war,the revolution,and saving the nation,from subjugation,all of these had crushed the research of female body.Thence,however,a new female body language had started to substitute the combination of Chinese and western woman body figure,which was the classical red woman figure.

  After 1949,the woman figure only existed for the purpose of basic training in school,and the performance of femal body as individual art work was not allowed,even prohibited.

  The red woman figure pattern was generally covered with clothes,itscharacteristic was sacred;What she had to remove was elements that had anything to do with sexual sttractiveness related to the human body,and preserve a positive and enthusiastic attitude,in a more neutral stance.And such trend had reached its peak during Cultural Revolution.

  After 1979,with the development of liberation of mind,the human body had also gradually liberated.The female body figure had returned to the artistic palace.Till this time,it seemed that is was time to study the human body.

  Unfortunately,we were moving too fast.New artistic idea and ideological trend passed over like wind,in order to prove that they had not fallen behind,and to keep up with the trend and comptition,the artists had to pursue the fashion and the trend in the art community.

  The body was once again nelected.But this time,it was not because of the taboo,however,but because there was no taboo at all.

  When Lao Da studied femalebody in the traditional way,there was a new conceptual pioneer art appeared,by then,the body was material.It was a bold,violent yet aesthetic art.

  Lao Da's study of female body was caught in between,and it seemed not sufficiently vanguard.

  Then,how to look at Lao Da?

  The significance of Lao Da's work needs to be looked at seriously.The part he studies is exactly abandoned by a history,but from the art history,the cultural history,this part should not be omitted.

  The significance of Lao Da's work is discovering the body,and he has [successfully] made people discover the "Chinese" body.

  His sculpture works have presented the Chinese beauty.In this field,we have not made further progress.But Lao Da keeps studying it.In the art history,we have seen innumerable exquisite western woman figure art;Then,from the perspective of Chinese physiology and anthropology,is there any Chinese female body figure art to compare with?

  Digging uo from a deeper place,this is "an uncompleted modernity".With respect to the issue of human body,Chinese people stillneed to learn,liberate,and confidently face the hunman body,need to regard hunman body as an aesthetic object.Hunman body is neither bawdry,not dirty.How people treat body is an indicator of the significance of social progress,which also serves a criterion for thr development of social modernity.China also has a long way to go in this regard.

  Lao Da has not simply duplicated works from the older generation,his woman figure retains certain contemporary flavor and modern insight.

  looking over a few female body sculpture in Chinese history,the academicism in the past always cincentrated in studying those structures and proportions.In there,people can see many "correct" woman figure works,but those bright,vivid,and sexy woman figures are hard to see.This is certainly decided by sculptor's imagination.

  Lao Da's sculptuers of females are always magnanimous.The body is exquisite,and luring.The artist does not conceal his appreciation of the object.His sculptuer of woman figure,had gotten rid of those shallow,hypocritical doctrines of female body,achieve to a king of visually.Obviously,he is willing to return to the original state of woman,body,and sex  appeal.

  Discovering the body,discovering the perception,and discovering Oriental euphemism and gentleness,all of these have seeped the sculptor indivifuals' emotions.When he observes the objects in his own way,he does not mold the human body,but let the work return to original stateaand reality:Not only the visual reality, but also facing the Chinese females,catches the Orientalcharm in the Chinese female body.This kind of body discovery has made his human body work become one of the few successful sculpture cases in the Contemprorary Chinese Art.

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